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The cause of joint wear can be very diverse. Depending on the cause, there are various therapy options to alleviate the symptoms and potentially prevent progression.

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The knee joint is the largest joint in the human body and consists of three bones: the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shinbone), and the patella (kneecap). It is stabilized by numerous ligaments, muscles, tendons, and cartilage, allowing for a variety of movements such as flexion and extension of the leg, as well as slight rotation.

Various conditions can affect the knee joint, such as varus osteoarthritis or valgus osteoarthritis. Varus osteoarthritis is the wearing down of the joint cartilage on the inner side of the knee joint, which can lead to a leg axis with bow legs. Valgus osteoarthritis, on the other hand, is the wearing down of the joint cartilage on the outer side of the knee joint, which can lead to a leg axis with knock knees. Uneven cartilage wear can also lead to chondropathy or chondromalacia.

The causes of knee joint injuries can be varied, ranging from acute traumas such as an ACL tear or meniscus injuries to overuse syndromes such as patellar tendinitis.


The diagnosis of knee pain involves a thorough medical history and physical examination, as well as imaging techniques such as X-rays, MRI, or CT scans.


If conservative treatment measures such as physiotherapy or pain medication do not provide sufficient relief, knee arthroscopy or joint replacement may be necessary in some cases. In this procedure, the damaged joint is replaced with an artificial prosthesis. Such an operation is referred to as total knee replacement (TKR). There is also the option of partial knee replacement, where only part of the knee joint is replaced.

Alternatively, hyaluronic acid injections or cortisone injections may be considered as conservative treatment measures instead of surgery. Hyaluronic acid injections are intended to regenerate joint cartilage and improve joint function. Cortisone injections, on the other hand, are used to relieve inflammation and pain.

It is important to weigh individual risks and potential complications of the various treatment options and make an appropriate decision in consultation with an experienced orthopedic surgeon.

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