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​The patella is a bone located in the front area of the knee joint and acts as a lever arm for the extensor mechanism. Disruptions in the area of the kneecap or a dislocation can lead to pain and cartilage damage.


The kneecap, also known as the patella, is a triangular bone located in front of the knee joint. It is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body and serves as a lever arm for the muscles of the front thigh to extend the knee joint. The kneecap is covered by a layer of cartilage that allows for smooth movement of the knee.

Patella alta and patella baja are conditions in which the position of the kneecap has changed. In patella alta, the kneecap is higher than normal, while in patella baja, it is lower than normal. These changes can cause the kneecap to be unstable and potentially dislocate during movements of the knee joint.

Jumper's knee, or patellar tendonitis, is a common overuse injury that affects the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone. It is characterized by pain and inflammation in the tendon, often due to repetitive jumping or running activities.

Patellar dislocation is an injury where the kneecap is forced out of its normal position. It often occurs in young, active individuals and can be caused by direct impact to the knee or sudden movements. Patellar dislocation can result in pain, instability, and swelling in the knee.


The patellofemoral pain syndrome, also known as runner's knee, is a common knee condition characterized by pain around or behind the kneecap. It often occurs with activities that involve bending the knee, such as running, squatting, or climbing stairs.


The diagnosis of patellar injuries is typically made through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or MRI scans, and possibly arthroscopy, where the doctor directly examines the knee joint.


Treatment for patellar injuries depends on the severity of the injury. In most cases, conservative measures such as rest, physical therapy, and pain medication are used. However, in severe cases, surgery may be necessary to stabilize or repair the kneecap.

In addition to treatment, it is important to take measures to reduce the risk of patellar injuries. This may include wearing appropriate footwear, improving posture and muscle strength, and avoiding excessive training or activities that stress the knee joint. Careful rehabilitation after a patellar injury is crucial to restore full mobility and functionality of the knee joint.

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