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The hamstrings, also known as the ischiocrural muscles, are a group of three muscles located at the back of the thigh, forming the hip joint flexor.

Image by Nicolas Hoizey

The hamstrings, consisting of the semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles, attach at the sitting bone height and run along the back of the thigh bone before attaching to the inside and outside of the knee joint.

Hamstring ruptures are tears in the muscle-tendon connection of the hamstring muscles. The cause of such tears can be sudden, explosive muscle exertion, excessive stretching, or poor blood circulation. Hamstring tendinosis refers to chronic irritation or inflammation of the hamstring tendons.


The diagnosis of hamstring ruptures or tendinosis can be made through clinical examinations, such as detecting pain, swelling, or bruising at the affected site. Ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for accurate diagnosis.


The treatment of hamstring ruptures and tendinosis can initially be conservative, such as rest, ice, and physiotherapeutic exercises to strengthen the muscles and improve mobility. However, in more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged tissues or reconstruct the tendons. Infusions with plasma or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can also be used to accelerate healing.

Muscle fiber tears in the hamstring area can also occur and are often caused by overuse or sudden movements.

Treatment can be similar to that for ruptures or tendinosis, involving rest, ice, and physiotherapy to strengthen and stretch the muscles. In more severe cases, surgery may also be required.

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